Tommy, who is one of my blog readers asked how to calculate payout percentage of any given slot machine after reading this slot strategies article. I started writing a reply to his question in the comment, but the answer turned out much longer than I had initially planned so I decided to dedicate the answer a full post I believe it deserves.

Please note that the payout percentage can only be calculated this way if each spin is completely random. The only way you can be sure it’s completely random is if you play in a casino, which is licensed by a jurisdiction dictating the **outcome of each slot spin must NOT be predetermined, it has to be completely random**. Casinos bound by this restriction are all legally operating casinos in Las Vegas and Atlantic City as well as most licensed online casinos.

In order to calculate payout percentage on a slot machine with completely random RNG (Random Number Generator), you need to know 2 things beforehand: **occurrence of all symbols on each reel** and **paytable**. In a very simplistic example suppose we have a slot machine with 3 reels and with only 2 symbols

and

Total number of symbols on each reel is 3: 2xBAR and 1xSeven

Payout table shows 2 winning combinations for each $1 bet as follows:

wins $1

wins $15

First we need calculate the probability of each combination:

For *3xBAR* the probability is **2/3 * 2/3 * 2/3 = 0.3**

For *3xSeven* the probability is **1/3 * 1/3 * 1/3 = 0.037**

Note that the probability to get BAR on 1 reel is 2 out of 3 times, hence **2/3** in the formula and for Seven it’s 1 out of 3 (**1/3**)

We multiplied probabilities **3 times** because the combination is made up from 3 times the symbol.

Now we can calculate the payout of each combination:

For *3xBAR* the payout is **$1 * 0.3 = $0.3**

For *3xSeven* the payout is **$15 * 0.037 = $0.56**

Finally we add the payouts of each combination together to get the total payout:

**$0.3 + $0.56 = $0.86**

Since we payout we just calculated is for **$1 nomination** (according to the paytable) then the payout for this nomination is **$0.86** (each time we bet $1, on average we win back $0.86) or in other words the payout for $1 nomination is **86%** (without bonus game or progressive jackpot)

Note that payout percentage can vary depending on the nomination. Higher nominations often offer better payback.

If the slot game has a bonus round, we also need to take that into account and start by calculating the probability of getting into the bonus round. Then multiply it with the average amount you can win at the bonus round and add the result to the total payout.

Suppose in our example ** 3xSeven** puts us into a bonus round where we are given a choice of

**3 pots of gold**. If we choose the right one, we win additional

**$3**

On average we would win 1 out of 3 times in the bonus round. Since the win amount is $3, then the total amount we would win on average is **1/3 * $3 = $1** each time we get to the bonus round.

Since we have already calculated the probability to get to the bonus round (** 3xSeven = 0.037**), then we can add another

**$1 * 0.037 = $0.037**to the total payout which now stands at

**$0.86 + $0.037 = $0.90**. Now that we have taken the bonus round into account, the total payout is

**90%**.

If it’s a progressive slot, we need to multiply the probability to hit the jackpot with the jackpot amount and add the result to the total payout as well.

Suppose the probability to hit the progressive is **one in a million** and the jackpot is **$10 000**

**1/1 000 000 * $10 000 = $0.01**

After adding it to the total payout, we get **$0.9 + $0.01 = $0.91** or **91%** payout.

Suppose the progressive jackpot is **$100 000** instead

**1/1 000 000 * $100 000 = $0.1**

After adding it to the total payout, we get **$0.9 + $0.1 = $1** or in other words **100% payout**.

If you were an advantage gambler who has done the homework like we just did here, you would know that whenever the progressive on this slot machine reaches $100 000, the total payout percentage reaches 100%, at which point playing on that slot machines becomes profitable in the long run. ‘A long run’ in this case would probably mean a few million spins, but you would be guaranteed to make profit if you had a sufficient bankroll and a lot of patience (or an army of apes pulling levers).

As you can see the math behind calculating the slot machine payout is quite simple. The most difficult part of the whole process is probably finding the information regarding the occurrence of each symbol on the reel as casinos don’t tend to publish this simply because an average gambler has no need for this type of information.

If you have any questions, feel free to post them as comments and I’ll try answer them as best as I can.

*UPDATE: Tommy asked how to calculate the keno video slot payout percentage, so I figured I’d throw it in here as well.*

I have to admit I’m not a big fan of keno video slotmachines myself, but I believe I have a fairly good understanding how they work.

Suppose we mark **3 spots**. First we need to calculate the **total number of ways possible to draw 3 balls out of 80**.

**80/1* 79/2 * 78/3 = 82 160**

Notice we substract 1 after each draw. That’s because the ball we just drew cannot be drawn again, it’s now out of the “bubble”.

Since the game draws **20 winning balls**, we have to calculate the **total number of ways 3 spots can be amongst the winning 20**.

**20/1 * 19/2 * 18/3 = 1140**

The probability to hit all 3 spots is therefore **1140/82160 = 0.0139 or 1.39%**

Suppose the paytable shows $40 prize for hitting all 3 on a $1 bet. **The payout for hitting 3 spots out of 3 is then $40 * 0.0139 = $0.56**

Suppose paytable is generous enough to award us $2 should we hit 2 spots out of 3 with every $1 bet.

**The total number of ways to hit 2 spots out of the winning 20 is 20/1 * 19/2 = 190** and **the total number of ways possible, that 1 ball remains amongst the 60 that don’t get drawn, is 60/1 = 60.** This means there are a total of **190*60 = 11 400 different possible ways to draw 2 winning balls and 1 losing ball.**

We already calculated there are 82 160 possible ways to draw 3 balls, therefore **probability to draw 2 winning + 1 losing ball is 11400/82160 = 0.14**

This adds another **$2 * 0.14 = $0.28** to the total payout which is now at **$0.56 + $0.28 = $0.84**. That means **the total payout is 84% for $1 card played with 3 spots**.

If the paytable is the same for both 1- and 20-card version, the payout percentage remains unaffected so whether you play 1-card keno 20 times or 20-card keno once, it doesn’t really matter.

## 6 responses, Add Yours

Thanks Jaz, this is very interesting. I hope I'm not asking for too much but my curiosity has the best of me. So, if I were to apply this formula to a multi-card keno game would there be 80 symbols since there are 80 numbers on the board? And how would the fact that are 20 cards affect the equation ?

## Reply to Tommy

@Tommy I updated the post with information on how to calculate payback percentage for keno video slots

## Reply to Jaz

Hi Jaz. I happen to stumble upon your blog as I was searching the net for ways with which I can beat the electronic bingo machine- those with 90 balls at most. So far, the tip about keeping an eye out for 'loose' machines is the most useful one yet. Anyways, I just want to the secret to beating the bingo machine, if there are any. Thanks!

## Reply to ervic

@ervic Hi,

Check out http://777click.com/slot-strategies-that-work/

All slot strategies described there also apply for bingo slot machines. As far as I'm aware of, the only reliable, yet legal way to walk away with more money from a casino is to get comps and bonuses.

## Reply to Jaz

Laz,

I wanted you to know that I am highly versed in the inner and outer makings of slot machines. I have four of them in my Family room, plus a Game King. I have converted one into a progressive and changed all game chips to reflect the highest Percentage of payback possible. There is not a thing in any of my slots that I personal cannot repair. I also have read just about every book in print on the subject and have spent my last 20 years learning. I started in the age of the mechanicals, then electro mechanicals, classic reels, and finally digital, both IGT and Bally's. Most of the books I have read have been pure BS, and when I first started Casino's kept their information secret and "Virtual Reels" had not evolved until IGT developed it. I thoroughly understand the RNG, and realize it is as close as an RNG can be, but it is a "man made" algorithm, which a gamming commission employee named Ron Dale Harris managed to exploit by inserted a GAP Program to augment his winnings. (Gap: his own program that was inserted into the game chip that the gamming commission used to check for jackpot disputes. My electronic and science background causes me to peruse answers to questions and BS is a waste of my time. You site is probably the most informative site I have ever been on. I found it buy accident (I was looking to purchase an IGT 10X motherboard and a comparator for one of my machines). You possess a gift in writing so that the average person can understand (doesn’t ramble like me) and your information is true and accurate. I am a High Limits player, and on a percent trip returned $72K in winnings by using some of your methods plus my excel spreadsheet of the casinos slots that I have played in for the last five years. Like you mentioned, I analyze the data (which is much more accurate over 5 years, than a day’s data due to win loss cycles) This has proven to be highly effective for I only focus on the high winnings and avoid the large losers, factoring in demonization, location, and required session bankroll.

Now there is the profanity, due to the randomness of a machine that a slot could run cold for several weeks, months, or even years. Their PC's (Payback Percentages) are minored on a monthly basis and over the life of the machine; it should be very close to the manufacture’s game chip payback percentage. My ten times is a perfect example of that, a very high resilient machine to begin with, (Low hit frequency) it has gone for 3 plus years without hitting anything over 200 credits. The game chip that I installed in it is a 96.224% payback. This is a classic example of randomness) I am currently weighting my second publication, "Random Luck???" (First one was in 1998 "Conquering The One Arm Bandits" ©) Finally my question to you is: With our current technological developments advancing at a morbid rate, in your opinion, do the Casinos use the technology of changing their PC to coincide with time, locations, and various factors they may want to instill? I know that the technology exists, but what I do not know is it in use as we speak. Laz thank you and keep up the good work.

Ron Kenela

Cleaned up version wit grammer and spelling checked

## Reply to Ron Kenela

Thanks a lot, Jaz!

This post really helped me to understand some basics ideas about slot probabilities to develop my slot machine

## Reply to Daniil

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